CO2 concentration limit values, the costs and benefits of control and the potential for international agreements Others, however, provide for the most sensible measures to combat climate change outside the Paris Agreement. Some experts are calling for the creation of a climate club – an idea championed by Yale University economist William Nordhaus – that would sanction countries that fail to meet or meet their commitments. Others propose new contracts [PDF] applicable to specific emissions or sectors to complement the Paris Agreement. Yes, there is a broad consensus within the scientific community, although some deny that climate change is a problem, including politicians in the United States. When negotiating teams come together for international climate talks, “there is less skepticism about science and more disagreement about how to set priorities,” says David Victor, a professor of international relations at the University of California, San Diego. The basic research is as follows: scientists first described this chemical reaction in the 1970s and first observed in 1985 an erosion of the stratospheric ozone layer (a “hole in the ozone layer”) over Antarctica. Among other things, colder temperatures lead to conditions that increase exhaustion rates. In 1987, an international agreement on the protection of the ozone layer was signed describing the production and use of “ozone-depleting substances” such as CFCs. This agreement, the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, entered into force in 1989 and established different exit plans for the production and use of different chemicals. Developing countries have been given longer periods of time to comply with emission phase-out provisions than industrialized countries. It maintains the commitment of industrialized countries to remain the leaders in financing, but for the first time, “other parties” are invited to provide voluntary financial support. This invites industrialized countries to establish a specific roadmap to reach the annual goal of $100 billion in climate finance by 2020.
In 2004, COP 10 was held in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The parties have begun to discuss options for adaptation. The parties “considered and adopted numerous decisions and conclusions on issues related to technology development and transfer; land use, land-use change and forestry; the financial mechanism of the UNFCCC; the national communication of [industrialized countries]; Capacity-building; accommodation and response measures; and Article 6 of the UNFCCC (education, training and public awareness), which addresses adaptation and reduction issues, the needs of least developed countries (LDCs) and future strategies to combat climate change. Two important agreements have been reached under the UNFCCC: on 22 April 2016, 175 Heads of State and Government signed the Paris Agreement at the UN Headquarters in New York. This was by far the largest number of countries that have ever signed an international agreement in a single day. Meanwhile, 186 countries have ratified the Paris Agreement. At the 21st Conference of the Parties held in Paris in 2015, the parties to the UNFCCC reached a pioneering agreement to combat climate change and accelerate and scale up the measures and investments needed for a sustainable low-carbon future. The Paris Agreement builds on the Convention and, for the first time, places all nations in a common cause to make ambitious efforts to combat climate change and adapt to its effects, with increased support to help developing countries do so. .